Scientists use 3 key features to identify and read Human Chromosomes:
- Size: This is the most clear way to tell chromosomes apart.
- Banding pattern: Also called, Giemsa bands on the chromosomes make each pair unique.
- Centromere position: These are areas on chromosomes that look banded. They have a role in the separation of chromosomes into daughter cells during cell division (mitosis and meiosis).
Using these identifiers, scientists can match up the 23 pairs of Chromosomes. One set from the mother and one set from the father.
Positioning of the centromere in correlation to the end of the chromosome helps scientists tell chromosomes apart.